Algorithmic bias is an emerging challenge in law enforcement. Dr. Tzu-Wei Hung, Associate Research Fellow from the Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica and Dr. Chun-Ping Yen, assistant professor from Soochow University, form spearhead efforts to analyze racial discrimination in Chicago’s predictive policing with the contrastive causation model. They explain why it is mathematically impossible to satisfy all fairness criteria simultaneously. They show that algorithmic fairness is not an objective truth but has context-sensitive social meanings that must be negotiated through democratic processes. They finally offer a governance framework. This research was published by Synthese in June 2023.